Infection Prevention When Doing First Aid

Every year, around the world millions of people experiencing pain, disability until death due to infectious diseases of all age ranges from newborn babies, children up to the elderly. From the economic side, so much personal good income, and state institutions that must be spent to treat and eradicate infectious diseases around the world, not to mention losses due to lost productivity due to loss of working days. Losses above should be minimized by the existence of an action that is easy and cheap to do, namely prevention of infection.

Some community groups are more susceptible to infectious diseases when compared to other community groups. >This is caused by several factors such as age, occupation, habits, life style, environment, immunization status, health conditions and others. For example, a baby and the 60-year-old will have a higher risk of infectious disease when compared with the 15-year-old adolescents. So also with the job, a health personnel who interact with sick people will have a greater risk for contracting infectious disease than an office clerk.

Thus, as a first helper, a knowledge of absolute prevention of infection to have because it is related to the principle of maintaining security and safety of yourself before helping others, and not exacerbate the situation by transmitting an infectious disease. The infection can be transmitted and the other is transmitted through the patient, is also very likely to occur among the first helpers. By knowing, understanding and implementing infection prevention, infection transmission chain has been decided. Termination of the transmission chain is a way that is very easy and inexpensive to prevent infection when compared with the Rx.


Infectious Diseases

Infectious disease is a condition the entry of harmful microorganisms (pathogens) such as bacteria, viruses or parasites that can be transmitted into the body.
Microorganisms are living creatures invisible (very small size) contained in natural or living independently in place and certain living things. Microorganisms can enter the body and transmitted through various ways. Its presence in nature on the one hand the advantage of playing a major role in maintaining the balance of the ecosystem and human health alone, but on the other hand, if there are microorganisms that interact with plants, animals or humans, can cause illness. Each has its own characteristics as a place to live (habitat), survival mechanisms, reproductive system (multiply), long life and the circumstances that support the life and cause death. For example, the virus that causes influenza is spread by breathing the air while talking, coughing or sneezing. Thus knowledge of each of these microorganisms is very helpful in preventing infections caused.

Modes of transmission of infection

Body does not easily become infected. Because the body's natural defense system which has very complex in the circumstances to eliminate or microorganisms that will harm the body. However, when these defense mechanisms were damaged, although only in some parts of it, so infection may occur. But, once again, thanks to the creation of the Almighty, the infection does not necessarily manifest into illness.

Here are 2 ways of transmission of infection in humans:

• Direct contact occurs when there is contact with body fluids (blood, saliva, breast milk), open wounds or open soft tissue, mucous mouth, eyes or nose.
The disease can be transmitted through direct contact:
HIV infection, hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases such as herpes simplex,

• Indirect contact occurs when there is contact with pathogenic microorganisms in the air, is expelled from the body through small particles during breathing, coughing and sneezing, or contact with contaminated objects such as needles, or through a vector (carrier animal pathogenic microorganisms).
Infectious diseases that can malalui indirect contact:
Respiratory tract infections over, tuberculosis, measles, smallpox, diarrhea, dengue fever, malaria, typhoid fever, hepatitis

Diseases that must be considered

As a first helper, you may be exposed to various types of infectious diseases during the assessment or treatment of patients. However, only three are of concern because it can be life threatening. Namely:
Hepatitis (A, B, C, D, E, F).
Causes inflammation of the liver, is spread through blood or other body fluids, can not be treated (so far, still in the research), fatal and can live in dried blood for days. Can be prevented by vaccination. In Indonesia, the most common type found was type B and C







Tuberculosis (TB).
Nearly a third of the Indonesian people have been infected with TB. However, only 10% who manifest a disease. Most infections are found in the lung, also can attack other networks, highly contagious, spread through the air. Can live in moist air and not exposed to direct sunlight for a long time. Medication can work well, but must be lived in a long time (at least 6 months).




Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
AIDS is a collection of symptoms caused by viral infection (Immunodeficinecy Human Virus-HIV) that attacks the body's immune system. So that the immune system can not function properly and the body is not able to overcome the effects of this virus. In addition, the patient will be susceptible to other infectious microorganisms. Risk of transmission is smaller than hepatitis and tuberculosis because of HIV virus can not live long outside the human body. Transmission occurs through contact with blood and other body fluids of HIV-infected patients. The time needed ranging from infection to cause the complaints (phase AIDS) take many years, depending on the patient's immune system. While transmission is to take place when the patient himself did not know her HIV infection.

Signs and Symptoms

Patients with infectious diseases can show signs and symptoms are typical and some will not show it. This is related to the body's defense mechanisms tehadap infectious diseases and the nature of microorganisms and the course of the disease itself.
Largest source of transmission of infection is the carrier (carriers) are chronic, someone who can carry the infection for years without signs and symptoms. The disease is carried by carriers such as: typhoid fever, hepatitis and HIV. To find out whether someone is a carrier-specific disease, can be done through investigations such as laboratory tests of blood. Because it is difficult to know, take action to prevent infection is the most powerful ways to avoid contracting infectious diseases.
The first helper is not expected to make a diagnosis of a disease based on signs and symptoms are found. But it is important for him to know someone was helping experienced infectious disease or not.
Some of the signs and symptoms of infectious diseases is:
• Fever
• Coughing or shortness of
• Diarrhea
• The skin and the whites of the eyes yellowish
• Dizziness
• Chest pain
• Abdominal pain
• Fatigue
• Excessive Perspiration
• Weight loss

Body's defense mechanisms

In humans the way the body's defense against infectious agent consists of 3 components, namely mechanical, biological and chemical.
The body's defense mechanism: prevents the entry of microorganisms into the body either by holding the entry, destroy or remove microorganisms that enter through a particular hole. The first is the body's defense against invasion from outside. Consists of the skin as the first line of defense mechanism, reaction of the body such as cough, sneeze, sweat, skin peeling, tears, urine and feces.
Body's biological defense: mechanisms to isolate, disable, or destroy microorganisms that come in and reach the body.
Body's chemical defense: the chemicals either endogenous or exogenous to help the body overcome the infection. Example: gastric acid capable of destroying pathogens in food-borne and swallowed sputum, destructive enzymes of bacteria and exogenous chemicals such as antibiotic drugs and immunization.

Body Substance Isolation (BSI)

Definition: infection control protocols to control the infection based on the assumption that blood and other bodily fluids in an infected state.
BSI is a combination of tools and procedures which protect the rescue of the blood and other body fluids from patients. With BSI is possible to safely treat patients, including patients with infectious diseases. BSI can be done in three ways, namely:

1. Washing hands. One of the most important thing that can be done to prevent the spread of infection (Do this even if you wear gloves). Performed before and after making contact with the patient and the tools associated with it. Wash hands with soap and washed with running water.
2. Using self-protection equipment (PPD)
Helpers should always use the PPD to prevent infection because it will protect itself from contact of blood and other body fluids. PPD consists of protective goggles, gloves, protective clothing and masks
3. Cleaning equipment. Cleaning, sanitize, and sterilization are interrelated terms.
Cleaning is washing it with soap and water.
Disinfection is clean with the addition of chemicals such as alcohol or bleach to kill pathogens (disinfectant).
Sterilization is a process that aims to kill microorganisms on the instrument using chemical or other processes (heating, high pressure).
All considered infected body fluids and preventive measures should be performed on each patient every time.

Immunization

Is the action to strengthen the defense system (immune) to give germs the body that have been attenuated (antigen) to stimulate the body out of materials needed to overcome a certain infections. In addition, by providing such substances (antibodies) that directly improve the immune system in a short time.

Following immunization in Indonesia recommended to all first helper:
• TT-tetanus prophylaxis (every 10 years)
• Hepatitis B Vaccination and A
• Influenza vaccine (every year)
• MMR Vaccination
• Vaccination meningokok
• Measles
• Typhoid Vaccination
Sampat Although there is currently no immunization for tuberculosis, the helper should consult regularly every year.

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