Oxygen Therapy


Is a form of gas molecules with the formula 02. Oxygen is required by living cells as fuel for energy. Content of oxygen in different can be found in the water, air and soil. Oxygen content in the air varies, depending on the place because at a lower pressure the concentration of a substance will become smaller. At sea level the oxygen concentration of about 21%, the higher the oxygen concentration of a place will be reduced. Humans get oxygen from the breathing process called respiration, an outline of the process of breathing is divided into 2 inhalation (inhaled) and expiratory (exhale). When humans inhale oxygen inhalation (21%) which will enter into the lungs and experience exchange with carbon dioxide. When humans exhale is still out of oxygen about 18%. Volume of air that humans can breathe freely during breathing ranged between 10-15 ml / kg, tidal volume is called, so the more weight a person then the greater the oxygen demand also.

Indication of oxygen therapy

Oxygen is a drug. Giving oxygen to patients with breathing stopped happening aims to prevent hypoxia, a condition in which cells in the body lacks oxygen. Giving CPR provides oxygen only about 18% whereas during hypoxia the body needs oxygen content is large enough, but the provision of artificial respiration remains to be done because, in addition to prevent further hypoxia, also stimulates lung utuk to arise spontaneously breathing. Provision of oxygen with a particular instrument is recommended to be given when available appropriate facilities and providers know how to help the user, because the danger of oxygen consumption are fatal.
In general there are some circumstances where oxygen is required:
• A heart attack.
• Heart failure.
• Respiratory
• Complications during childbirth.
• Poisoning.
Generally in the above several organs that deliver oxygen to function (such as heart and lung) do not function properly so that oxygen should be given.

Oxygen delivery system

Oxygen delivery system consists of:
Tube (cylinder) with valves
• Oxygen is usually placed in the tube which has a valve. In many countries of oxygen can be recognized from the color tube, usually green or gray, but the oxygen tube in Indonesia does not have a standard (usually white), so before menggunakankan confirmation should be done first. Valve of the tube is located at the top of the tube, serves to open and close the tube.
• oxygen tube should be checked every day (see the danger of the use of oxygen) and the pressure should be tested every year because of high pressure (2000 psi, pounds / square inch).
• Keep the tube in place that are not exposed to direct sunlight with temperatures below 50 degrees Celsius.

• The tool is associated with the valve tube and serves to reduce the pressure so that oxygen is not given such high pressure in the tube. The pressure is derived from 2000 psi to 40-70 psi.
• This tool set amount given oxygen flow (in liters / minute).
Drainage channels oxygen to the patient
• We will inform the nose cannula, masks and non-rebreathing mask.

Drainage channels oxygen to the patient

CPR shield
Also called pocket face mask, designed to provide ventilation during CPR. This tool is made of soft plastic, in accordance with the patient's face and has a channel to be connected with an oxygen tank. Advantages of this shield:
• Avoid direct contact with the patient's mouth or nose.
• Allows additional oxygen delivery.
• When equipped with a one-way valves there is no contact with the patient's exhaled air.
• Easily taught and learned.
• Can provide ventilation and oxygenation is more effective.
• It's better than the technique-bag-valve mask to provide adequate tidal volume.
With this tool can be ventilated with oxygen concentration of 50% with the flow of 10 liters / minute.

This tool consists of bags that can inflate itself and no valve. Tools that are available about the volume of 1600 ml is usually adequate enough to develop the patient's lungs. Helpers must be at the head of the patient, the patient's head should be appointed / head tilt and given a little booster, the patient's mouth must remain open.
Use of this tool with the two men would be more effective helper, someone holding a sungkupnya and again squeezing the air bag. If there is a third person can help by pressing krikoid bone.
If help is only done alone, supporting the left hand holding shield with 2 or 3 fingers on the mandible and the other fingers holding sungkupnya. Head extension should be kept and driven to the anterior mandible while maintaining the shield remains attached in place. Squeezed air bag in his right hand, as noted presence or absence of chest movement.
Thing to remember is that when squeezing the bag should not be until the whole bag terperas, just enough to make the patient's chest expands.
The disadvantage of this tool is the difficulty of set tidal volume is given.

Nasal cannula
This tool is usually used in patients without or with mild respiratory distress. The tool is shaped tube with 2 branches in the middle. The tool is most easily and frequently used in hospitals. The disadvantage of this tool is given oxygen mixed with outside air and at high flow rate can cause the nasal mucous membrane dryness.
Each increase in 1 liter / min will increase the inhaled oxygen concentration of about 4%, so the concentration of oxygen that can be given via nasal cannula as much as 1-6 liters in patients with normal tidal volume was 24-44%.

Face shield
This tool is a transparent mask covering the patient's mouth and nose. There are a number of holes on either side of the mask. Usually can be tolerated in adult patients. Oxygen is given to more than 5 liters / minute (to prevent exhaled air from accumulating and inhalation breathing again). The recommended flow is 8-10 liters / minute.
Same as the nose cannula, oxygen will be mixed with room air, but this way can provide oxygen concentration of 40-60% and given to those who require oxygen concentration higher

Fume-face with the oxygen storage / face mask with reservoir / non-rebreathing face mask
This face shield equipped so that no additional mixing occurs between the oxygen provided by the outside air. With this tool we can provide the supply of oxygen with a concentration of more than 60%. Giving oxygen 6 liters / minute will provide 60% oxygen concentration and any increase in the concentration 1liter/menit will increase 10%. So if you used the right way, giving oxygen 10 liters / minute will give 100% oxygen concentration.
This method is usually used for patients who are not conscious and breathing spontaneously as a conscious patients at risk for causing nausea and vomiting.

Hazards associated with the use of oxygen

• Fires: Not allowed to smoke or use fire when using oxygen. Oxygen does not explode, but it can raise the fire so the fire will be burning even more.
• The explosion: Never use oil or grease around the oxygen tube. Oil and lubricant adjacent to the high concentration of oxygen can cause an explosion.
• Damaged valve: Avoid falling tube or tube placement that allows it to fall. Regulator or damaged valve can cause the cylinder to become projectiles.

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