Effective Communication

Communication is a process in which someone sends a message to others. The elements of communication include the news makers, news, media, news receiver, feedback, environment. A person who delivered the message usually want a change in the person receiving the message, either from simple things such as knowing something fact, until the occurrence of behavioral change. In connection with the patient's doctor for example, doctors wanted a change in the patient such as increased knowledge, change attitudes, to change behavior (taking medication regularly, diet or regular exercise). Said that effective communication when what you want to understand the provider submitted the recipient.

In the doctor patient relationship, effective communication is important to improve patient compliance, improve patient satisfaction, reduce malpractice claims and improve provider job satisfaction. Patients have the right to get information related to his problems, get the full treatment of attention and appreciation and express their opinions.
Include this level of communication is how I perceive me (the provider selfish), this how I perceive you (the provider listen to and observe the patient's behavior), this is how I perceive you seeing me and hearing me (the provider feeling the effects on the patient's words) , this is how I think you see me seeing you (there empathic communication, the provider understand the patient's situation at that time, communicate with the spirit and responsive to verbal speech and non-verbal patients behavior. When you understand these levels, the provider can anticipate the communication process, understand what is implied and the impact his words. To achieve a satisfactory result communication, communication skills required (interpersonal communication) to be trained every day and everywhere.
The steps in the communication is self-awareness (each communicating, always ready to practice the theory of interpersonal communication), realize that people who communicate with us may not know how to communicate well and practice it every day. This will help us become better communicators.
Interpersonal Communication (KIP) is the interaction between people with other people, two-way, verbal and non-verbal, sharing information and feelings with each other, or between individuals in small groups. These skills should have a doctor, namely verbal communication skills and non-verbal and verbal communication observation and non-verbal patients.
A. Verbal communication
(Communication through words spoken by someone)
a. Making patients feel comfortable
To make the patient feel comfortable, doctors need to be friendly, say hello, make connections (rapporting), making small talk with patients, explaining the authority and responsibility and client rights.
b. Ask questions

Doctors also have to ask and listen to patients to encourage clients to talk, show interest and attention to clients, increase our awareness of the feelings of the client, to obtain information and provide a referral to the client's conversation. From the questions we can be the general conditions, facts, feelings of clients and the reasons.
Questions can be grouped into open-ended questions that provide new opportunities for the emergence of various jaawaban and closed questions that only produce a "yes", "no" and the deeper questions raised when patients do not meet our need for such information. Closed questions are used to determine history of the disease. Open-ended questions to learn about feelings, beliefs and knowledge of the client. Deep questions to respond to client statements.
c. Active listening
Listening skills is to reflect the content of (paraphrasing), to reflect the feeling, and summarizing. Exchanging information shows that we care and attention. How do we talk and listen is as important as what we say. Must possess skills that are attention, concentration on the other person, summarize, reflect, do not cut, give non-verbal responses, and asked for an explanation.
Reflection Content (paraphrasing) is a reflection of the core speech has just been said by the patient. While reflecting feelings about the emotions of patients, and a core sense of feedback that the client is observed by the doctor. Emotions form the basis of most life experiences.
Paraphrasing involves the use of branch lines, key information used by patients to describe a situation or person, who pronounced the patient's core and accurately checks. While the reflection of feelings, the doctor imagine how the patient was feeling so communication and discussions went smoothly.
Summarizes almost like a reflection of the contents, the difference is to summarize the discussions conducted after some time and include some information submitted by the client.
d. Providing information
Information must be provided in simple language, honest, correct and complete.

e. Responding patients
In responding patients, there are some things to avoid, namely the verbal language is prohibited interrupt, criticize, assumptions and evaluation (do not believe the words of the patient. Meanwhile, in the non-verbal language for example, frowning, showing surprise or shock reaction, a smile that abusive (should show a neutral face).

In communicating, we are prohibited from assuming or evaluation. The assumption is too early to make conclusions, making conclusions without evidence (can not be inferred from the expression of verbal and non-verbal) of the things delivered by the patient. Evaluation is doubtful or put mistrust of what was said by the patient.

f. Encouraging patients to speak

Sometimes there are patients who are difficult to talk. Provider's duty to make them want to disclose the problem and provide enough information so that providers can establish the diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment.

B. Non-verbal communication
(all delivered by one person to another is not through words but through cues)

Communication vebal include non-voice (volume, speed, tone, vocals), face (gloomy, angry, smile, angry, disappointed), eye contact, gestures, body positions, and touch.

C. Observing verbal communication and non-verbal patients
Client's problem can be clearly known if the patient listens carefully, observing behavior (behavior) patients and ask questions effectively. Non-verbal observations made by observing the patient's face (sad, scared, confused, disappointed, down, angry, no eye contact, happy or satisfied) and the movements of the patient (anxiety, look at the clock again and again, hand made certain movements ). While in verbal language, observations were made on the verbal greeting clients if there is implied disappointment, anger, anxiety etc..

In communication there can be obstacles that interfere with. These barriers are factors such as recipient, the message, the message sender, the environment and the media.


1. Information Rights: The right to know all the information relating to the issue of benefits and limitations dihadapinyamengenai tool / way of family planning.

2. Access Rights: The right to receive services regardless of gender, religion, creed, ethnicity, marital status and location.

3. Choosing the right: The right to decide freely in selecting and using family planning methods.

4. Rights Security / safety: The right to obtain services safe and effective

5. Privacy Rights: The right to privacy in counseling and family planning services.

6. Confidentiality Rights: The right to obtain assurance that the personal information provided will be kept confidential.

7. Rights Harkat Dignity; right to receive services in a humane, full of respect and attention.

8. Right Convenience: The right to comfort in the service

9. Rights Continuity: The right to a guaranteed availability of a tool / way family planning is complete and continuous service as long as necessary.

10. Right Thinking: The right to express opinions freely.

taken from handouts
Dr. Endang Basuki, dr, MPH
Departemen Ilmu Kedokteran Komunitas FKUI

2 Responses to “Effective Communication”

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